**Description**

**I** fought really hard and for a long time
for this course to be offered to students. Finally, it became
available as an optional course to the 4th and final year
students in the Teaching of Physics-Chemestry
(eventually becoming
High or Secondary School teachers).

As in the course of
Astrophysics, I aim
on *(a)* providing
students with a fair description of different physical and
mathematical
aspects, together with *(b)*
exploring with simple but rigourous calculations how one
can actually explain how
the universe is or can be. I do not agree with some
amateurish attitudes that
some General Relativity concepts are
only to be merely "described" to students by
means of diagrams and a lot of "that's it!". I
tried to also "put physics" (and some mathematics) in it. Otherwise, students
will neither understand the "why" and "how" of
A. Einstein's overwhelming achievement.

The course covers a basic introduction on *why*
Special Relativity is not (good) enough when gravity is present,
then invoking all the features and sidelines of the
Equivalence Principle. A lot of geometry follows
(always with a properly justified insight of physical
interpretation and its need). It culminates in the
Einstein's equations, the geodesic deviation effect and
the Newtonian limit (students felt
particularly relieved when getting to this - maybe their "natural
everyday ground"). But the excitment is too strong and the lecturer
continues his unfailling path. He then focuses on the
Schwarzschild solution and its physical consequences,with a
brief spell on Gravitational Waves (if time allows).
The course ends with Relativistic Cosmology. Students
here seemed to enjoy getting aware on how General Relativity
features
and cosmological big-bang features can actually be
retrieved, calculated and scientifically explained,
instead of just displaying nice pictures of the
night sky or a diagram of the Hubble law.

But if you are in doubt whether Relativity and Cosmology aspects may arise when the least you expect, perhaps you should consider otherwise.

(If you got curious have a look at my research career and research projects list - for different ranges of students/collaborators).

**Program, Evaluation Methods and Bibliography**

In the following links you may find

- a detailed description of the Programme and outline of the course in Topics in General Relativity and Cosmology,
- together with an explanation of how students will be assessed/evaluated and their end of semester marks established.
- The Bibliography will provide you with a thorough list of books to consult, with emphasis on those existent at UBI library

**Lecture Notes**

**L**ecture notes are being made available!!
Thanks to the unfailing assistance of a few students,
the handwritten (in the lecturer usual cryptic style)
lines are transformed in a
monograph.
You may obtain it here. I do hope it
will be both useful and enjoyful for you as
for me.

**Tutorials Schedulle**

Students can consult me **[Horario de Atendimento - 2002/03]** on
*Thursday - 5a Feira* between 11.00 - 12.00 am, either in my
office or LAG.

**Exams, Tests,Problem Sets and Marks (classifications)**

Students may peruse previous example/exercice
sheets and tests/exams
(some may be missing - I will try to update this section):

- Major Test 1/2002 Topics in General Relativity and Cosmology & Major Test 2/2002 Topics in General Relativity and Cosmology & Major Test 3/2002 Topics in General Relativity and Cosmology
- Exam 1/2002 Topics in General Relativity and Cosmology & Exam 2/2002 Topics in General Relativity and Cosmology
- Major Test 1/2003 Topics in General Relativity and Cosmology & Major Test 2/2003 Topics in General Relativity and Cosmology & Major Test 3/2003 Topics in General Relativity and Cosmology
- Exam 1/2003 Topics in General Relativity and Cosmology & Exam 2/2003 Topics in General Relativity and Cosmology

Students may also find the several
problem
sets and project assignments
posted here.

This is the current academic year (2002/2003)
Marks/Classifications
(Excel format)

My report submitted for my Agregacao can be found here. It constitutes a (Detailed) Description of the Course, but please note there are some slight changes and diferences concerning the programme, bibliography and assessement.

Finally, the following links may provide additional material for your study. These are on-line resources about General Relativity and Cosmology:

- GRG internet resources by Malcolm MacCallum
- Cambridge ... obviously!
- GR-QC ArXives and many more...
- Relativity Bookmarks, Syracuse University
- Relativity on the World Wide Web
- Relativity and Black Hole Links, Andrew Hamilton, University of Colorado
- Hyperspace, University of British Columbia
- Living Reviews in Relativity

Here you will find more lecture notes on General Relativity and Cosmology

- General Relativity Tutorial, John Baez, UC Riverside
- Physics 8.962, Ed Bertschinger, MIT
- Lecture Notes on General Relativity, Petr Hadrava, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic
- Black Hole Lecture Notes, Paul Townsend, Cambridge
- A First Look at Relativity and Gravitation, Clifford Johnson, University of Kentucky
- Tensors and Relativity , A GR coure on-lie! Peter Dunsby, Cape Town
- Introduction to General Relativity, Gerard 't Hooft, Utrecht University
- Modern Relativity
- Introduction to Differential Geometry and General Relativity, Stefan Waner, Hofstra University
- Lecture Notes on General Relativity, Matthias Blau, ICTP (postscript).
- S. Carroll's Lecture Notes on GR
- "A no-nonsense introduction to general relativity," Sean Carroll, postscript, pdf.
- "Gravitation, experiment and cosmology," Thibault Damour, gr-qc/9606079
- "Gravitation and Experiment," Thibault Damour, gr-qc/9711061
- "New physics and astronomy with the new gravitational-wave observatories," Scott A. Hughes, Szabolcs Marka, Peter L. Bender, and Craig J. Hogan , astro-ph/0110349
- "The Thermodynamics of Black Holes," Robert M. Wald, gr-qc/9912119

A varied list or varied resources on various aspects of phsycs...

- Explore Science
- The Virtual Laboratory
- Classical and Quantum Description of a Particle
- Physics Links
- NOVA Online Teatchers
- Divulgacao de Ciencia
- Online Physics Tutorial 1
- Online Physics Tutorial 2
- The Light Cone
- The Net Advance of Physics
- Educative 1
- Educative 2
- Educative 3
- Educative 4
- Educative 5
- Educative 6
- Educative 7
- Educative 8
- Educative 9
- Educative 10
- Java 1
- If you come across any other interesting site
*do*inform me. Many thanks in advance.

A suggestive list of some relevant (and not just!) review articles can be found here:

- Superstringtheory.com
- Spires
- Living Reviews in Relativity
- Level 5: A Knowledgebase for Extragalactic Astronomy and Cosmology
- The Net Advance of Physics

If you are interested in advancing your knowledge in cosmology this is a good starting point to begin your "wild" explorations about the universe:

- "Cosmology for string theorists," Sean Carroll, hep-th/0011110
- "Introduction to Cosmology," David H Lyth, astro-ph/9312022
- "Cosmology at the Millennium," Michael Turner and J. Anthony Tyson, astro-ph/9901113
- "Physics at the Interface of Particle Physics and Cosmology," R.D. Peccei, hep-ph/9808418
- "Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology (Summary of the Snowmass 2001 P4 Working Group)," Daniel S. Akerib, Sean M. Carroll, Marc Kamionkowski, and Steven Ritz, hep-ph/0201178
- "Primordial Nucleosynthesis: Theory and Observations," Keith A. Olive, Gary Steigman, Terry P. Walker, astro-ph/9905320
- "Big-bang Nucleosynthesis Enters the Precision Era," David N. Schramm and Michael S. Turner , astro-ph/9706069
- "Gravitational Wave Experiments and Early Universe Cosmology," Michele Maggiore, gr-qc/9909001
- "Electroweak Baryogenesis," Mark Trodden, hep-ph/9803479
- "Recent Progress in Baryogenesis," Antonio Riotto and Mark Trodden, hep-ph/9901362
- "Big Bang nucleosynthesis and physics beyond the Standard Model," Subir Sarkar, hep-ph/9602260
- "Cosmic strings," M.B. Hindmarsh and T.W.B. Kibble, hep-ph/9411342

In the links below you will find a "must have read" series of papers. Some cannot be missed (if you want to learn more):

- "An introduction to cosmological inflation," Andrew R Liddle, astro-ph/9901124
- "An Exposition on Inflationary Cosmology," Scott Watson, astro-ph/0005003
- "Inflationary Cosmology: Progress and Problems," Robert Brandenberger, hep-ph/9910410
- "Particle Physics Models of Inflation and the Cosmological Density Perturbation," David H. Lyth and Antonio Riotto, hep-ph/9807278
- "Inflation and Eternal Inflation," Alan H. Guth, astro-ph/0002156
- "From the Big Bang Theory to the Theory of a Stationary Universe," Andrei Linde, Dmitri Linde, Arthur Mezhlumian, gr-qc/9306035
- "Reconstructing the Inflaton Potential --- an Overview," James E Lidsey, Andrew R Liddle, Edward W Kolb, Edmund J Copeland, Tiago Barreiro, Mark Abney, astro-ph/9508078

So, you still feel brave enough? Here is a good sample on CMB and Cosmological Perturbations

- A CMB Polarization Primer by Wayne Hu and Martin White
- "The Cosmic Microwave Background and Particle Physics," Marc Kamionkowski and Arthur Kosowsky, astro-ph/9904108
- "The Cosmic Microwave Background," Arthur Kosowsky, astro-ph/0102402
- "The Standard Cosmological Model and CMB Anisotropies," James G. Bartlett, astro-ph/9903260
- "The Cold Dark Matter Density Perturbation," Andrew R Liddle and David H Lyth, astro-ph/9303019
- "A CMB Polarization Primer", W. Hu and M. White, astro-ph/9706147
- "Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropies," W. Hu and S. Dodelson, astro-ph/0110414
- "The theory of CMB anisotropies," Ruth Durrer, astro-ph/0109522

... And another list of interesting references is as follows. They concern what may become a XXIth century paradigm on our understanding of the universe. It seems the universe has been expanding and "recently" it started ... to accelerate! So here are a few references focusing on the really recently "weird" (maybe not, in fact) features of the universe - Dark Energy and the Cosmological Constant:

- "The Cosmological Constant," Sean Carroll, astro-ph/0004075
- "The Cosmological Constant and Dark Energy," P. J. E. Peebles and Bharat Ratra, astro-ph/0207347
- "The Case for a Positive Cosmological Lambda-term," Varun Sahni and Alexei Starobinsky, astro-ph/9904398
- "Quintessential Cosmology and Cosmic Acceleration," Paul Steinhardt, postscript
- "Cosmological constant vs. quintessence," Pierre Binetruy, hep-ph/0005037
- "The Cosmological Constant From The Viewpoint Of String Theory," Edward Witten, hep-ph/0002297
- "The cosmological constant problem," Steven Weinberg, Rev Mod Phys.

And not to be missed for the curious one (may the force be with you, oh brave wanderer...) is the following list of papers on Dark Matter

- "Self-Interacting Dark Matter," Benjamin D. Wandelt, Romeel Dave, Glennys R. Farrar, Patrick C. McGuire, David N. Spergel, Paul J. Steinhardt, astro-ph/0006344
- "Does Dark Matter Exist?," J. A. Sellwood and A. Kosowsky, astro-ph/0009074
- "Supersymmetric Dark Matter," G. Jungman, M. Kamionkowski, and K. Griest, hep-ph/9506380

Oh, I see. Good heavens, you made it up to here! So you
are really interested in the subject and many of its related
features. You can therefore find here a list of possible
topics and further useful links as well as as description of my
research work in (Quantum) Cosmological
Implications of Superstring Theory. On the whole, you will
find either reviews or research papers on the borderline where
Field Theory, Particle Physics, Supersymmetry, String-Branes-M-theory
may merge within a cosmological scenario.
Have fun, but be aware: **Ich warne Neugierige**, quoting the
wise words of W. Pauli.

**Students Feedback on the Course**

Finally, I have asked the students to fill in THIS questionaire
(Inquerito1) Query1 at the start of the
semester and THIS questionaire
(Inquerito2) Query2 at the end.
I stress that these are THE questionaires that interest me the most.
I am further grateful *in advance* for any
**constructive** criticism that may have assisted me and the
teaching of
Topics in General Relativity and Cosmology
to be both more effective in the
(very!) near future.

Back to my homepage!